It is common that residents are unaware of flood risks and/or believe that public flood defence measures are sufficient to protect them in case of flooding. In addition to the existing flood risks, residents are often not properly informed about immediate danger due to heavy rainfall or floods occurring in their area. The latter is particular the case if a flood wave arrives from upstream areas, without actually experienced significant rainfall at their place of residence. The lack in information precaution results in increased flood risk, as often neither residents are prepared for a flood event in terms of floodproofing the building, adaptation of building utilisations or insurance coverage, nor adjust their behaviour towards the imminent danger of an occurring flood.
There are sources of information residents should seek for their own precaution. However, the availability of such information depends on the country or regions residents are located. Therefore, residents are advised to ask their local authority for available information. Common sources of information are shown below and put into a temporal perspective, i.e. before-, during- and after a flood.